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This photo shows the center of the village from ground level, with the 4th century AD synagogue on the left. On the right side are the Byzantine ruins of the village in the center, which occupied the same area as of the early Roman houses (from the time of Jesus).
Capernaum grew larger at the time of Jesus (early Roman period, 1st century AD), and a synagogue was built in the center of the village. It reached its peak in the Byzantine period when the grand white-stone Synagogue was built (end of the 4th century AD) over the earlier synagogue.
This photo shows the area between the synagogue and the 5th century church. The modern building, seen in the background, is the new church, which is built over the old church and the site of St Peter's house.